External environment

External environment

In order to meet future climate challenges, tomorrow’s energy systems will increasingly have to be based on renewable energy sources which do not contribute to the build-up of CO2 in the atmosphere. Energy will also have to be much more efficient along the entire supply chain.

While the global community is trying hard to establish the required and, not least binding, emission reduction targets, the EU and Norway, and thus Hafslund, will continue to be subject to specific reduction targets and associated measures. Norway will in particular be impacted by the EU’s Renewables Directive and imminent EU quota system for the period 2013–2020. Hafslund has therefore set itself a target of increasing its production of power and heat based on renewable energy sources, and at the same time reducing the use of fossil oil and gases. The company will also continually work to reduce the environmental impact of its own operations.

About the reporting

The data used in this report has been obtained from the organisation through the companies’ annual, quarterly and monthly reports, accounting systems and reports to public authorities. The report covers all companies active in Norway in 2011 where Hafslund is the majority owner. The environmental data has not been subject to an independent audit.

Methodology for calculating greenhouse gas emissions

The calculation methodology and CO2 factors used have a major impact on the presented total greenhouse gas emissions. There is currently no common standard for which factors to use for different sources of energy, for example electricity consumption in Norway. This means that transparency as regards methodology is important to be able to make any comparison and assessment of the environmental performance of different companies.
In 2011 Hafslund instigated a project intended to establish a common set of CO2 factors for the industry. The project has been implemented, and the annual financial statements for the year and all related graphs are based on this work .The CO2 factors are based on lifecycle considerations wherever possible. This means that emissions from production, refining and transport of, for example, oil and bio fuel are also included. The factor for electricity is a Nordic five-year average for the period 2004–2008.  

The factors used are shown in the table. The values that were used in the 2010 annual financial statements are shown in parenthesis.


Energy source in heat production CO2 factor used
(grams per kWh)
Incineration of waste 11,1 (0) Residual waste also contains some fossil materials, mainly non-recyclable plastics, which release fossil CO2 when burned. These are emissions that would have occurred in any case, and where disposal in a landfill would have resulted in even higher greenhouse gas emissions over time. Emissions from the actual resources have therefore been zeroised. Other emissions relate to direct incineration emissions and transport etc.
Wood chippings 18 (13) Includes emissions relating to logging/harvesting, processing and transport of fuel.
Flexible power for boilers and other electricity consumption 110 (116) Calculated by Hafslund on the basis of an average for the Nordic power mix for the years 2004-2008.
Fuel oil 287 (294) The emissions include production, refining and transport of fuel.
LNG 251 (221) Emissions include production, refining and transport of fuel.
LPG 276 (250) Emissions include production, refining and transport of fuel.
Biofyringsolje 10 (13) Emissions include production, refining and transport of fuel.
  1. http://www.fjernvarme.no/index.php?sideID=2495&ledd1=21&ledd2=1723